Worldwide Participation in Argo and Global Programs for Predicting Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions
The Argo Program is a part of or a contributor to several worldwide efforts to understand and predict ocean-atmosphere interactions and how they affect world climate. These efforts include: the Climate Variability and Predictability Program; the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment; and the Global Climate Observing System/Global Ocean Observing System.
Climate Variability and Predictability Program
The Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Program is an international, interdisciplinary research effort within the World Climate Research Program sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. CLIVAR focuses on improved understanding of the variability and predictability of the varying components of the climate system. CLIVAR researchers investigate dynamic processes in the climate system that occur on seasonal, inter-annual, decadal, and centennial time-scales.
US CLIVAR, the component of CLIVAR managed by the United States, hopes to leave a legacy of improved predictive capability of inter-related features of the ocean and atmosphere. The US CLIVAR committee and its three panels guide US CLIVAR research to fulfill the goals of prediction, process and model improvement, and observations. The panels develop and coordinate research plans and activities; provide input to agency programs, including those of NOAA, the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the U.S. Department of Energy; and assess achievement using performance measures.
The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment
The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) attempts to provide:
"a global system of observations, communications, modeling and assimilation that will deliver regular, comprehensive information on the state of the oceans, in a way that will promote and engender wide utility and availability of this resource for maximum benefit to the community." (from The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment Web site)
The primary components of GODAE are observation networks, models, and estimation tools. GODAE applies ocean models for open-ocean forecasts and provides information for climate forecast models. It conducts global analyses for improved understanding of the oceans and as a basis for improving the design and effectiveness of a global ocean observing system. GODAE attaches high priority to global coverage and the complementary nature of in situ ocean observations and remote sensing data. Argo, a GODAE pilot project, meets both of these requirements and holds the potential to satisfy GODAE’s needs for a sustained global ocean observing system.
GODAE is sponsored by: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; World Meteorological Organization; NOAA; France’s Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; European Organization for the Exploration of Meteorological Satellites; United Kingdom’s Met Office; French Institute for the Exploration of the Sea; Mercator – Ocean; Australia’s Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre; Australia’s CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Estimation of the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean Group; Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model Consortium for Data Assimilative Modeling; Japan Meteorological Agency; Institute of Atmospheric Physics – Chinese Academy of Sciences; Department of Fisheries and Oceans – Canada; NOOC; Meteo France; and the United States’s National Ocean Partnership Program.
The Global Climate Observing System
The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) is a long-term, operational observation system to monitor climate, detect and attribute climate change, assess the impacts of climate variability and change, and support research toward improved climate understanding, modeling, and prediction. Formed in 1992, its role is to ensure that observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are gathered and made available to all potential users. GCOS does not make observations nor generate products. It stimulates, encourages, and coordinates observations needed by national or international organizations. It addresses the total climate system including physical, chemical, and biological properties and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrologic, cryospheric (ice-related), and terrestrial processes.
Worldwide Participation in Argo
The following governments participate in Argo:
Argentina - Australia - Brazil - Canada - Chile - China - Cook Islands - Costa Rica - Denmark - Ecuador - European Union - Fiji - France - Germany - Iceland - India - Indonesia - Ireland - Japan - Kenya - Kiribati - Korea (Republic of) - Marshall Islands - Mauritius - Mexico - Micronesia (Federated State of) - Mozambique - Netherlands - New Caledonia - New Zealand - Niue - Norway - Papua New Guinea - Russian Federation - Samoa - Solomon Islands - South Africa - Spain - Tokelau - Tonga - Tuvalu - United Kingdom - United States - Vanuatu